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Wednesday, 08 September 2010 16:19

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Architecture is the art of building in which human requirements and construction materials are related so as to furnish practical use as well as an aesthetic solution, thus differing from the pure utility of engineering construction. As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure.

History of architecture

Architecture of the Ancient World

Egyptian Architecture

The Egyptians created massive, static, and serene architecture emerged from primitive structures of clay and reeds.

Probably the most famous structure in all of Egypt, the Pyramids are still on of the worlds best architectural achievement, even though they were built many centuries ago.

Classical architecture

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship that are the hallmarks of Greek art in general. The formulas they invented as early as the sixth century B.C. have influenced the architecture of the past two millennia.

Roman architecture

Social elements such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new (architectural) solutions of their own. The use of vaults and arches together with a sound knowledge of building materials, for example, enabled them to achieve unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing structures for public use. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and perhaps most famously of all, the Colosseum. They were reproduced at smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire. Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the town walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis, or northern Spain.

Chinese architecture

Chinese architecture is most famous for the Great Wall of China. But, there is so much more to Chinese Architecture than just that huge wall. Their temples are large and extravagant. Their palaces are a pleasure to look at. Even their roofs are breathtaking and detailed to the last drop of gloss or paint.

Indian architecture

One of the most enduring achievements of Indian civilization is undoubtedly its architecture, which extends to a great deal more than the Taj Mahal

Persian architecture

Persian art and architecture, works of art and structures produced in the region of Asia traditionally known as Persia and now called Iran. Bounded by fierce mountains and deserts, the high plateau of Iran has seen the flow of many migrations and the development of many cultures, all of which have added distinctive features to the many styles of Persian art and architecture.

Japanese architecture

Japanese houses have thin walls because of the mild climate and overlapping, slanted, and slightly curved roofs because of the fact that there is plenty of rain especially during early summer. Timber is the traditional building material for Japanese houses. It makes them airy which is important during the humid summer months.

 

Medieval architecture

Renaissance architecture

The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.

Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture developed in the early 17th century in Italy Features typical for this period are:

1. Large-scale ceiling frescoes

2. Dramatic or uniform use of light

3. Dramatic central projection on the external fa?ade

4. Opulent use of ornaments, such as plaster or stucco, marble or faux finishing

5. Use of the interiors as a shell for painting and sculpture (especially during the late Baroque)

6. Use of columns, domes, towers and oval windows

 

Modern architecture

Modern architecture is a new architectural style that emerged in many Western countries in the decade after World War I. It was based on the "rational" use of modern materials, the principles of functionalist planning, and the rejection of historical precedent and ornament. This style has been generally designated as modern, although the labels International style and functionalism have also been used.

 

Information is used from:

www.greatbuildings.com/

www.sscnet.ucla.edu

www.infoplease.com

www.kippo.or.jp

 

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Last Updated on Sunday, 26 September 2010 16:29
 

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